La tunisie Medicale - 2021 ; Vol 99 ( n°012 ) : 1104-1116
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Résumé

Introduction : Les patients porteurs de dispositifs cardiaques ferromagnétiques particulièrement les dispositifs électroniques cardiaques implantables à type de stimulateurs cardiaques ou de défibrillateurs automatiques implantables se voient souvent privés à tort de l’imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM) pour des raisons de sécurité.
Ce document de consensus est rédigé par un groupe de travail multidisciplinaire impliquant des rythmologues, des cardiologues interventionnels, des échographistes et des radiologues. Il a pour objectif d’établir des recommandations de bonne pratique pour optimiser la gestion des patients porteurs de dispositifs cardiaques et nécessitant un examen d’IRM, tout en garantissant la sécurité de ces patients et facilitant leur accès à l’IRM.

Mots Clés
Article
Références
  1. 1. Luechinger R, Duru F, Scheidegger MB, Boesiger P, Candinas R. Force and Torque Effects of a 1.5-Tesla MRI Scanner on Cardiac Pacemakers and ICDs. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol [Internet]. 2001 Feb 1 [cited 2021 Dec 19];24(2):199–205. Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1046/j.1460-9592.2001.00199.x 2. Irnich W. Risks to pacemaker patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Europace [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2021 Dec 19];12(7):918–20. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20488860/ 3. Higgins J V., Sheldon SH, Watson RE, Dalzell C, Acker N, Cha YM, et al. “Power-on resets” in cardiac implantable electronic devices during magnetic resonance imaging. Hear Rhythm [Internet]. 2015 Mar 1 [cited 2021 Dec 19];12(3):540–4. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25460173/ 4. Maffè S, Paffoni P, Perucca A, Signorotti F, Dellavesa P, Parravicini U. Pseudo “end of life” indication after electromagnetic field exposure: an unusual effect of magnetic resonance imaging on implanted cardioverter defibrillator. Int J Cardiol [Internet]. 2012 Apr 19 [cited 2021 Dec 19];156(2). Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21906826/ 5. Achenbach S, Moshage W, Diem B, Bieberle T, Schibgilla V, Bachmann K. Effects of magnetic resonance imaging on cardiac pacemakers and electrodes. Am Heart J [Internet]. 1997 [cited 2021 Dec 19];134(3):467–73. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9327704/ 6. Luechinger R, Zeijlemaker VA, Pedersen EM, Mortensen P, Falk E, Duru F, et al. In vivo heating of pacemaker leads during magnetic resonance imaging. Eur Heart J [Internet]. 2005 Feb [cited 2021 Dec 19];26(4):376–83. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15618060/ 7. Russo RJ, Costa HS, Silva PD, Anderson JL, Arshad A, Biederman RWW, et al. Assessing the Risks Associated with MRI in Patients with a Pacemaker or Defibrillator. N Engl J Med [Internet]. 2017 Feb 23 [cited 2021 Dec 19];376(8):755–64. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28225684/ 8. Nazarian S, Hansford R, Rahsepar AA, Weltin V, McVeigh D, Gucuk Ipek E, et al. Safety of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients with Cardiac Devices. N Engl J Med [Internet]. 2017 Dec 28 [cited 2021 Dec 19];377(26):2555–64. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29281579/ 9. Sommer T, Bauer W, Fischbach K, Kolb C, Luechinger R, Wiegand U, et al. MR Imaging in Patients with Cardiac Pacemakers and Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators. Rofo [Internet]. 2017 Jan 31 [cited 2021 Dec 19];189(3):204–17. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28201839/ 10. Aktaa S, Abdin A, Arbelo E, Burri H, Vernooy K, Blomström-Lundqvist C, et al. European Society of Cardiology Quality Indicators for the care and outcomes of cardiac pacing: developed by the Working Group for Cardiac Pacing Quality Indicators in collaboration with the European Heart Rhythm Association of the European Society of Cardiology. Europace [Internet]. 2021 Aug 29 [cited 2021 Dec 19]; Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34455442/ 11. Gandjbakhch E, Dacher JN, Taieb J, Chauvin M, Anselme F, Bartoli A, et al. Joint Position Paper of the Working Group of Pacing and Electrophysiology of the French Society of Cardiology and the French Society of Diagnostic and Interventional Cardiac and Vascular Imaging on magnetic resonance imaging in patients with cardiac electronic implantable devices. Arch Cardiovasc Dis [Internet]. 2020 Jun 1 [cited 2021 Dec 19];113(6–7):473–84. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32473997/ 12. Almeida AG, António N, Saraiva C, Ferreira AM, Reis AH, Marques H, et al. Consensus document on magnetic resonance imaging in patients with cardiac implanted electronic devices. Rev Port Cardiol [Internet]. 2021 Jan 1 [cited 2021 Dec 19];40(1):41–52. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33342713/ 13. Lebel K, Mondesert B, Robillard J, Pham M, Terrone D, Tan S. 2020 MR Safety for Cardiac Devices: An Update for Radiologists [Formula: see text]. Can Assoc Radiol J [Internet]. 2021 Nov 1 [cited 2021 Dec 19];72(4):814–30. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33231493/ 14. Friedman HL, Acker N, Dalzell C, Shen WK, Asirvatham SJ, Cha YM, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with recently implanted pacemakers. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol [Internet]. 2013 Sep [cited 2021 Dec 19];36(9):1090–5. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23826621/ 15. Higgins J V., Gard JJ, Sheldon SH, Espinosa RE, Wood CP, Felmlee JP, et al. Safety and outcomes of magnetic resonance imaging in patients with abandoned pacemaker and defibrillator leads. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol [Internet]. 2014 Oct 1 [cited 2021 Dec 19];37(10):1284–90. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24809591/ 16. Padmanabhan D, Kella DK, Mehta R, Kapa S, Deshmukh A, Mulpuru S, et al. Safety of magnetic resonance imaging in patients with legacy pacemakers and defibrillators and abandoned leads. Hear Rhythm [Internet]. 2018 Feb 1 [cited 2021 Dec 19];15(2):228–33. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29045806/ 17. Naehle CP, Strach K, Thomas D, Meyer C, Linhart M, Bitaraf S, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5-T in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators. J Am Coll Cardiol [Internet]. 2009 Aug 4 [cited 2021 Dec 19];54(6):549–55. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19643318/ 18. Junttila MJ, Fishman JE, Lopera GA, Pattany PM, Velazquez DL, Williams AR, et al. Safety of serial MRI in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Heart [Internet]. 2011 Nov [cited 2021 Dec 19];97(22):1852–6. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21873440/ 19. Buendía F, Cano Ó, Sánchez-Gómez JM, Igual B, Osca J, Sancho-Tello MJ, et al. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 T in patients with cardiac rhythm devices. Europace [Internet]. 2011 Apr [cited 2021 Dec 19];13(4):533–8. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21227955/ 20. Levine GN, Gomes AS, Arai AE, Bluemke DA, Flamm SD, Kanal E, et al. Safety of magnetic resonance imaging in patients with cardiovascular devices: an American Heart Association scientific statement from the Committee on Diagnostic and Interventional Cardiac Catheterization, Council on Clinical Cardiology, and the Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention: endorsed by the American College of Cardiology Foundation, the North American Society for Cardiac Imaging, and the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance. Circulation [Internet]. 2007 Dec [cited 2021 Dec 19];116(24):2878–91. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18025533/ 21. MRI Safety Home [Internet]. [cited 2021 Dec 19]. Available from: http://www.mrisafety.com/ 22. Shellock FG, Morisoli SM. Ex vivo evaluation of ferromagnetism, heating, and artifacts produced by heart valve prostheses exposed to a 1.5-T MR system. J Magn Reson Imaging [Internet]. 1994 [cited 2021 Dec 19];4(5):756–8. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7981523/ 23. Shellock FG. Prosthetic heart valves and annuloplasty rings: assessment of magnetic field interactions, heating, and artifacts at 1.5 Tesla. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson [Internet]. 2001 [cited 2021 Dec 19];3(4):317–24. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11777223/ 24. Hassler M, Le Bas JF, Wolf JE, Contamin C, Waksmann B, Coulomb M. Effects of magnetic fields used in MRI on 15 prothetic heart valves. J Radiol [Internet]. 1986 [cited 2021 Dec 19];67(10):661–6. Available from: http://inis.iaea.org/Search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:18031855 25. Randall PA, Kohman LJ, Scalzetti EM, Szeverenyi NM, Panicek DM. Magnetic resonance imaging of prosthetic cardiac valves in vitro and in vivo. Am J Cardiol [Internet]. 1988 Nov 1 [cited 2021 Dec 19];62(13):973–6. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3177245/ 26. Soulen RL, Budinger TF, Higgins CB. Magnetic resonance imaging of prosthetic heart valves. Radiology [Internet]. 1985 [cited 2021 Dec 19];154(3):705–7. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3969474/ 27. Edwards M-B, Taylor KM, Shellock FG. Prosthetic Heart Valves: Evaluation of Magnetic Field Interactions, Heating, and Artifacts at 1.5 T. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2000;12:363–9. 28. Condon B, Hadley DM. Potential MR Hazard to Patients With Metallic Heart Valves: The Lenz Effect. Imaging. 2000;12:171–6. 29. Pruefer D, Kalden P, Schreiber W, Dahm M, Buerke M, Thelen M, et al. In vitro investigation of prosthetic heart valves in magnetic resonance imaging: evaluation of potential hazards. J Heart Valve Dis [Internet]. 2001 May 1 [cited 2021 Dec 19];10(3):410–4. Available from: https://europepmc.org/article/med/11380110 30. Prasad SK, Pennell DJ. Safety of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients with cardiovascular implants and devices. Heart [Internet]. 2004 Nov [cited 2021 Dec 19];90(11):1241–4. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15486111/ 31. Maragiannis D, Jackson MS, Flores-Arredondo JH, Autry K, Schutt RC, Alvarez PA, et al. Functional Assessment of Bioprosthetic Aortic Valves by CMR. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging [Internet]. 2016 Jul 1 [cited 2021 Dec 19];9(7):785–93. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27184505/ 32. Myers PO, Kalangos A, Panos A. Safety of magnetic resonance imaging in cardiac surgery patients: annuloplasty rings, septal occluders, and transcatheter valves. Ann Thorac Surg [Internet]. 2012 Mar [cited 2021 Dec 19];93(3):1019. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22365008/ 33. Saeedi M, Thomas A, Shellock FG. Evaluation of MRI issues at 3-Tesla for a transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) bioprosthesis. Magn Reson Imaging [Internet]. 2015 May 1 [cited 2021 Dec 19];33(4):497–501. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25620522/ 34. Krumm P, Zuern CS, Wurster TH, Mangold S, Klumpp BD, Henning A, et al. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in patients undergoing percutaneous mitral valve repair with the MitraClip system. Clin Res Cardiol [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2021 Dec 19];103(5):397–404. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24477865/ 35. Hamilton-Craig C, Strugnell W, Gaikwad N, Ischenko M, Speranza V, Chan J, et al. Quantitation of mitral regurgitation after percutaneous MitraClip repair: comparison of Doppler echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Ann Cardiothorac Surg [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2021 Dec 19];4(4):341–51. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26309843/ 36. Gajjar K, Kashyap K, Badlani J, Williams RB, Biederman RWW. A review of the pivotal role of cardiac MRI in mitral valve regurgitation. Echocardiography [Internet]. 2021 Jan 1 [cited 2021 Dec 19];38(1):128–41. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33270944/ 37. Shellock FG, Morisoli SM. Ex vivo evaluation of ferromagnetism and artifacts of cardiac occluders exposed to a 1.5-T MR system. J Magn Reson Imaging [Internet]. 1994 [cited 2021 Dec 19];4(2):213–5. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8180463/ 38. Bock M, Mohrs OK, Voigtlaender T, Kauczor HU, Semmler W. [MRI safety aspects and artifacts of atrial septal defect and patent foramen ovale occluders at 1.5 tesla: a phantom study]. Rofo [Internet]. 2006 Mar [cited 2021 Dec 19];178(3):272–7. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16508833/ 39. Symons R, Zimmerman SL, Bluemke DA. CMR and CT of the Patient With Cardiac Devices: Safety, Efficacy, and Optimization Strategies. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging [Internet]. 2019 May 1 [cited 2021 Dec 19];12(5):890–903. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31072517/ 40. Mohrs OK, Wunderlich N, Petersen SE, Pottmeyer A, Kauczor HU. Contrast-enhanced CMR in patients after percutaneous closure of the left atrial appendage: a pilot study. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson [Internet]. 2011 [cited 2021 Dec 19];13(1). Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21726450/ 41. Scott NA, Pettigrew RI. Absence of movement of coronary stents after placement in a magnetic resonance imaging field. Am J Cardiol [Internet]. 1994 May 1 [cited 2021 Dec 19];73(12):900–1. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8184819/ 42. Hug J, Nagel E, Bornstedt A, Schnackenburg B, Oswald H, Fleck E. Coronary arterial stents: safety and artifacts during MR imaging. Radiology [Internet]. 2000 [cited 2021 Dec 19];216(3):781–7. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10966711/ 43. Shellock FG, Forder JR. Drug eluting coronary stent: in vitro evaluation of magnet resonance safety at 3 Tesla. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson [Internet]. 2005 [cited 2021 Dec 19];7(2):415–9. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15881523/ 44. Symons R, Pontone G, Schwitter J, Francone M, Iglesias JF, Barison A, et al. Long-Term Incremental Prognostic Value of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance After ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Study of the Collaborative Registry on CMR in STEMI. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging [Internet]. 2018 Jun 1 [cited 2021 Dec 19];11(6):813–25. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28823746/ 45. Gerber TC, Fasseas P, Lennon RJ, Valeti VU, Wood CP, Breen JF, et al. Clinical safety of magnetic 1. Luechinger R, Duru F, Scheidegger MB, Boesiger P, Candinas R. Force and Torque Effects of a 1.5-Tesla MRI Scanner on Cardiac Pacemakers and ICDs. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol [Internet]. 2001 Feb 1 [cited 2021 Dec 19];24(2):199–205. Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1046/j.1460-9592.2001.00199.x 2. Irnich W. Risks to pacemaker patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Europace [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2021 Dec 19];12(7):918–20. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20488860/ 3. Higgins J V., Sheldon SH, Watson RE, Dalzell C, Acker N, Cha YM, et al. “Power-on resets” in cardiac implantable electronic devices during magnetic resonance imaging. Hear Rhythm [Internet]. 2015 Mar 1 [cited 2021 Dec 19];12(3):540–4. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25460173/ 4. Maffè S, Paffoni P, Perucca A, Signorotti F, Dellavesa P, Parravicini U. Pseudo “end of life” indication after electromagnetic field exposure: an unusual effect of magnetic resonance imaging on implanted cardioverter defibrillator. Int J Cardiol [Internet]. 2012 Apr 19 [cited 2021 Dec 19];156(2). Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21906826/ 5. Achenbach S, Moshage W, Diem B, Bieberle T, Schibgilla V, Bachmann K. Effects of magnetic resonance imaging on cardiac pacemakers and electrodes. Am Heart J [Internet]. 1997 [cited 2021 Dec 19];134(3):467–73. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9327704/ 6. Luechinger R, Zeijlemaker VA, Pedersen EM, Mortensen P, Falk E, Duru F, et al. In vivo heating of pacemaker leads during magnetic resonance imaging. Eur Heart J [Internet]. 2005 Feb [cited 2021 Dec 19];26(4):376–83. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15618060/ 7. Russo RJ, Costa HS, Silva PD, Anderson JL, Arshad A, Biederman RWW, et al. Assessing the Risks Associated with MRI in Patients with a Pacemaker or Defibrillator. N Engl J Med [Internet]. 2017 Feb 23 [cited 2021 Dec 19];376(8):755–64. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28225684/ 8. Nazarian S, Hansford R, Rahsepar AA, Weltin V, McVeigh D, Gucuk Ipek E, et al. Safety of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients with Cardiac Devices. N Engl J Med [Internet]. 2017 Dec 28 [cited 2021 Dec 19];377(26):2555–64. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29281579/ 9. Sommer T, Bauer W, Fischbach K, Kolb C, Luechinger R, Wiegand U, et al. MR Imaging in Patients with Cardiac Pacemakers and Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators. Rofo [Internet]. 2017 Jan 31 [cited 2021 Dec 19];189(3):204–17. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28201839/ 10. Aktaa S, Abdin A, Arbelo E, Burri H, Vernooy K, Blomström-Lundqvist C, et al. European Society of Cardiology Quality Indicators for the care and outcomes of cardiac pacing: developed by the Working Group for Cardiac Pacing Quality Indicators in collaboration with the European Heart Rhythm Association of the European Society of Cardiology. Europace [Internet]. 2021 Aug 29 [cited 2021 Dec 19]; Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34455442/ 11. Gandjbakhch E, Dacher JN, Taieb J, Chauvin M, Anselme F, Bartoli A, et al. Joint Position Paper of the Working Group of Pacing and Electrophysiology of the French Society of Cardiology and the French Society of Diagnostic and Interventional Cardiac and Vascular Imaging on magnetic resonance imaging in patients with cardiac electronic implantable devices. Arch Cardiovasc Dis [Internet]. 2020 Jun 1 [cited 2021 Dec 19];113(6–7):473–84. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32473997/ 12. Almeida AG, António N, Saraiva C, Ferreira AM, Reis AH, Marques H, et al. Consensus document on magnetic resonance imaging in patients with cardiac implanted electronic devices. Rev Port Cardiol [Internet]. 2021 Jan 1 [cited 2021 Dec 19];40(1):41–52. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33342713/ 13. Lebel K, Mondesert B, Robillard J, Pham M, Terrone D, Tan S. 2020 MR Safety for Cardiac Devices: An Update for Radiologists [Formula: see text]. Can Assoc Radiol J [Internet]. 2021 Nov 1 [cited 2021 Dec 19];72(4):814–30. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33231493/ 14. Friedman HL, Acker N, Dalzell C, Shen WK, Asirvatham SJ, Cha YM, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with recently implanted pacemakers. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol [Internet]. 2013 Sep [cited 2021 Dec 19];36(9):1090–5. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23826621/ 15. Higgins J V., Gard JJ, Sheldon SH, Espinosa RE, Wood CP, Felmlee JP, et al. Safety and outcomes of magnetic resonance imaging in patients with abandoned pacemaker and defibrillator leads. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol [Internet]. 2014 Oct 1 [cited 2021 Dec 19];37(10):1284–90. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24809591/ 16. Padmanabhan D, Kella DK, Mehta R, Kapa S, Deshmukh A, Mulpuru S, et al. Safety of magnetic resonance imaging in patients with legacy pacemakers and defibrillators and abandoned leads. Hear Rhythm [Internet]. 2018 Feb 1 [cited 2021 Dec 19];15(2):228–33. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29045806/ 17. Naehle CP, Strach K, Thomas D, Meyer C, Linhart M, Bitaraf S, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5-T in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators. J Am Coll Cardiol [Internet]. 2009 Aug 4 [cited 2021 Dec 19];54(6):549–55. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19643318/ 18. Junttila MJ, Fishman JE, Lopera GA, Pattany PM, Velazquez DL, Williams AR, et al. Safety of serial MRI in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Heart [Internet]. 2011 Nov [cited 2021 Dec 19];97(22):1852–6. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21873440/ 19. Buendía F, Cano Ó, Sánchez-Gómez JM, Igual B, Osca J, Sancho-Tello MJ, et al. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 T in patients with cardiac rhythm devices. Europace [Internet]. 2011 Apr [cited 2021 Dec 19];13(4):533–8. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21227955/ 20. Levine GN, Gomes AS, Arai AE, Bluemke DA, Flamm SD, Kanal E, et al. Safety of magnetic resonance imaging in patients with cardiovascular devices: an American Heart Association scientific statement from the Committee on Diagnostic and Interventional Cardiac Catheterization, Council on Clinical Cardiology, and the Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention: endorsed by the American College of Cardiology Foundation, the North American Society for Cardiac Imaging, and the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance. Circulation [Internet]. 2007 Dec [cited 2021 Dec 19];116(24):2878–91. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18025533/ 21. MRI Safety Home [Internet]. [cited 2021 Dec 19]. Available from: http://www.mrisafety.com/ 22. Shellock FG, Morisoli SM. Ex vivo evaluation of ferromagnetism, heating, and artifacts produced by heart valve prostheses exposed to a 1.5-T MR system. J Magn Reson Imaging [Internet]. 1994 [cited 2021 Dec 19];4(5):756–8. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7981523/ 23. Shellock FG. Prosthetic heart valves and annuloplasty rings: assessment of magnetic field interactions, heating, and artifacts at 1.5 Tesla. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson [Internet]. 2001 [cited 2021 Dec 19];3(4):317–24. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11777223/ 24. Hassler M, Le Bas JF, Wolf JE, Contamin C, Waksmann B, Coulomb M. Effects of magnetic fields used in MRI on 15 prothetic heart valves. J Radiol [Internet]. 1986 [cited 2021 Dec 19];67(10):661–6. Available from: http://inis.iaea.org/Search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:18031855 25. Randall PA, Kohman LJ, Scalzetti EM, Szeverenyi NM, Panicek DM. Magnetic resonance imaging of prosthetic cardiac valves in vitro and in vivo. Am J Cardiol [Internet]. 1988 Nov 1 [cited 2021 Dec 19];62(13):973–6. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3177245/ 26. Soulen RL, Budinger TF, Higgins CB. Magnetic resonance imaging of prosthetic heart valves. Radiology [Internet]. 1985 [cited 2021 Dec 19];154(3):705–7. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3969474/ 27. Edwards M-B, Taylor KM, Shellock FG. Prosthetic Heart Valves: Evaluation of Magnetic Field Interactions, Heating, and Artifacts at 1.5 T. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2000;12:363–9. 28. Condon B, Hadley DM. Potential MR Hazard to Patients With Metallic Heart Valves: The Lenz Effect. Imaging. 2000;12:171–6. 29. Pruefer D, Kalden P, Schreiber W, Dahm M, Buerke M, Thelen M, et al. In vitro investigation of prosthetic heart valves in magnetic resonance imaging: evaluation of potential hazards. J Heart Valve Dis [Internet]. 2001 May 1 [cited 2021 Dec 19];10(3):410–4. Available from: https://europepmc.org/article/med/11380110 30. Prasad SK, Pennell DJ. Safety of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients with cardiovascular implants and devices. Heart [Internet]. 2004 Nov [cited 2021 Dec 19];90(11):1241–4. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15486111/ 31. Maragiannis D, Jackson MS, Flores-Arredondo JH, Autry K, Schutt RC, Alvarez PA, et al. Functional Assessment of Bioprosthetic Aortic Valves by CMR. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging [Internet]. 2016 Jul 1 [cited 2021 Dec 19];9(7):785–93. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27184505/ 32. Myers PO, Kalangos A, Panos A. Safety of magnetic resonance imaging in cardiac surgery patients: annuloplasty rings, septal occluders, and transcatheter valves. Ann Thorac Surg [Internet]. 2012 Mar [cited 2021 Dec 19];93(3):1019. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22365008/ 33. Saeedi M, Thomas A, Shellock FG. Evaluation of MRI issues at 3-Tesla for a transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) bioprosthesis. Magn Reson Imaging [Internet]. 2015 May 1 [cited 2021 Dec 19];33(4):497–501. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25620522/ 34. Krumm P, Zuern CS, Wurster TH, Mangold S, Klumpp BD, Henning A, et al. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in patients undergoing percutaneous mitral valve repair with the MitraClip system. Clin Res Cardiol [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2021 Dec 19];103(5):397–404. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24477865/ 35. Hamilton-Craig C, Strugnell W, Gaikwad N, Ischenko M, Speranza V, Chan J, et al. Quantitation of mitral regurgitation after percutaneous MitraClip repair: comparison of Doppler echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Ann Cardiothorac Surg [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2021 Dec 19];4(4):341–51. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26309843/ 36. Gajjar K, Kashyap K, Badlani J, Williams RB, Biederman RWW. A review of the pivotal role of cardiac MRI in mitral valve regurgitation. Echocardiography [Internet]. 2021 Jan 1 [cited 2021 Dec 19];38(1):128–41. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33270944/ 37. Shellock FG, Morisoli SM. Ex vivo evaluation of ferromagnetism and artifacts of cardiac occluders exposed to a 1.5-T MR system. J Magn Reson Imaging [Internet]. 1994 [cited 2021 Dec 19];4(2):213–5. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8180463/ 38. Bock M, Mohrs OK, Voigtlaender T, Kauczor HU, Semmler W. [MRI safety aspects and artifacts of atrial septal defect and patent foramen ovale occluders at 1.5 tesla: a phantom study]. Rofo [Internet]. 2006 Mar [cited 2021 Dec 19];178(3):272–7. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16508833/ 39. Symons R, Zimmerman SL, Bluemke DA. CMR and CT of the Patient With Cardiac Devices: Safety, Efficacy, and Optimization Strategies. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging [Internet]. 2019 May 1 [cited 2021 Dec 19];12(5):890–903. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31072517/ 40. Mohrs OK, Wunderlich N, Petersen SE, Pottmeyer A, Kauczor HU. Contrast-enhanced CMR in patients after percutaneous closure of the left atrial appendage: a pilot study. 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